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Arequito in the year 1908
Arequito in the year 1908

Towards 1771, King Carlos III emitted a decree by which slugs were based on the royal way to Alto Perú.
In 1778 the Slug of Areco -called like that because of the first teacher of slug Braulio Areco- was created to shorten the distance between the slugs of Demochados and the "Esquina de la Guardia". With the pass of time, in order to distinguish it of Carmen de Areco and San Antonio de Areco, in Buenos Aires, it started to use the diminutive: Arequito.
In this slug stopped great heroes of our history: Belgrano, Lavalla, San Martin, Bustos, among others. But its universality is going to be given by the chronicles that constantly name it.
An important fact was the uprising of the Auxiliary Army of the Alto Perú, in charge of colonels Bustos, Heredia, Paz and Ibarra; occurred in this slug the 8 of January of 1820, whose consequence were the federal triumph of Cepeda, the treaty of Pilar, the culmination of the dictorial regime and the coming in the political scene of the country of the federalist molds.
With the course of the time the zone went populating. In 1855, to protect the population of the indigenous attacks, a near ranch, the "Guardia de Acevedo", it was fortified, knowing like Cantón Arequito, then Cantón Constitución.
The great ranchs of the zone sold or rented lots of their land to immigrants. With european people, the pampa transformed into the most productive region of the country. In 1887 arrives the Ferrocarril Oeste Santafesino, brought by Don Carlos Casado del Alisal. The foundation of the station of trains, located to 17 South Kms. of the old location of the slug, produced a significant change in the zone, and due to the increase of the population, mainly of this european origin: Italian, Yugoslav, Spanish, Arab, that were based around the station, on donated lands by the company Perez Freyre y Cía., the layout of the town and colony were drew it up, being approved the planes the 1º of June of 1891.


Arequito's Uprising - A mark in Argentina's History
Happened the 8 of January of 1820

“One of the most controverted facts of the historical past of Argentina, is the riot of Arequito, carried out by almost the totality of the Auxiliary Army of the Alto Perú, that refused to be instrument against the caudillos of the Coast, which struggled to impose the Federal system as sustenance for national political integration. Juan Bautista Bustos, Alejandro Heredia, José María Paz and Juan Felipe Ibarra were the main executors of the uprising.
“Juan Bautista Bustos and the three bosses who follow him, were military and not improvised persons devoid of professional and political knowledge. Because of that it is deduced that its intervention in the fact was a decision very analyzed.
“Arequito, supposes the patriotic revolt that fight the outer enemy and who in the santafesina slug refused to enter the internal fights of the Republic. The Uprising of Arequito closed the stage of the fights for the independence, to open the process of the organization like integrated State. The later defeat of the unitary troops in Cepeda and the Tratado del Pilar that recognized Entre Ríos like province, were consequences of the uprising. From then, the provincial mentality arose in the political scene of the country and the idea of organize it under federalist molds received impulse. The aim of the process happened in Batalla de Pavón, where Mitre overcame the Confederación Argentina and imposed to the losers ones to accept a republic with a system federal, but controlled and directed in Buenos Aires” (Serrano, Mario. “Arequito, ¿por qué se sublevó el Ejército del Norte?”, Editorial Círculo Militar. Buenos Aires. 1996)


ORIGINS OF THE UPRISING
Finalized century XVIII and in the beginning of the XIX, Spain was in war in Europe. This debilitated its powers in the colonies of America, which took advantage of to develop their independences.
The Virreinato del Río de la Plata was surrounded in revolutionary movements in May of 1810, when a patriotic governing body in Buenos Aires was created.
A confrontation to the central government with the provinces of the interior (that wished their autonomy) began. The origin of those differences had to do with the economic and political subjugation that the Buenos Aires people imposed towards the interio.r
The 24 of March of 1815, Santa Fe was declared independent, adhering to the group of federal caudillos of the Coast, influenced by Artigas.
The Supreme Director Carlos Maria de Alvear (central government) sent troops to the control of Alvarez Thomas to choke to the people of Santa Fe, but the defeat suffered by its army caused the destitution of Alvear the 15 of April of 1815.
Alvarez Thomas assumed like substitute Supreme Head, but the continuity of problems with Santa Fe caused his overthrow, taking the position to him from Supreme Director general Juan Martin de Pueyrredón, who continued harassing Santa Fe.
Towards 1818 a head arose from military services of Santa Fe, Estanislao Lopez, who exerted their authority like governor of Santa Fe.
In the middle of 1818, Supreme Director Pueyrredón summoned the Auxiliary Army of the North, that was to the control of General Manuel Belgrano defending the North border of the country, to face and to fight the federals. Belgrano accepted the order.
The 15 of April of 1819, Pueyrredón asked the General Jose de San Martin, who was in Mendoza listing the Army of liberation, that took part in the internal fight. As much San Martin as Belgrano maintained that first he was due to overcome the Spanish armies.
Still against its ideas, Belgrano obeyed the order not to disobey the incipiente Argentine political organization, and started off in the middle of February of 1819 from Salta towards Desmochados -in Santa Fe- to help the directorial army of the General Viamonte whom it had had to fall back in Rosario after defeat against the federals in Barrancas. The objective of the central government was clear: to use the strongest armies of the mother country to put under and to finish with the ideas of the provincial federal groups, that were in discord with the form of existing political organization, and they wanted the autonomy of all the provinces of the interior.
Belgrano encamped with its Army in the Slug of Arequito, from where it sent correspondence to Pueyrredón between the 9 and the 16 of April of 1819, communicating the armistice that had decided with Lopez to avoid internal fights; soon it returned to Capilla del Señor, Córdoba, where ill it delegated the control to General Francisco Fernandez de la Cruz, and assumed like Head of the General Staff Colonel Juan Bautista Bustos.
The 9 of June of 1819, Jose Rondeau replaced to Pueyrredón as Supreme Director and returned to insist to the Armies of the North and De los Andes, that went to Buenos Aires to fight against Lopez and Artigas. The 13 and the 16 of October, ordered to Fernandez De la Cruz who went with his troops. The General one already knew certain disagreement partly its troops, to act in the internal fights of the country.
San Martin disobeyed the orders of the Directory and crossed Los Andes - more behind schedule he would release from the Spaniards to Chile and Peru, then Rondeau arranged to the troops of Viamonte who were in San Nicolás to fight against the federal montoneros. The people of Santa Fe prevailed near Rosario.
The 12 of December of 1819, Fernandez De la Cruz undertook their march by the Camino Real towards the border with Buenos Aires, to reinforce the fight of the central government against the montoneros. Its Army was formed by 3 thousand men and 60 carts. They did not have uniform, rather had appearance of gauchos.
The 7 of January of 1820 the Army was near the Guard of the Corner (to 20 kilometers of Arequito). Their rows showed the possibility that it happened a revolt on the part of the troops, whom they did not love to inmiscuir themselves in the internal fights but to continue defending the country of the outer enemy. In addition the troops badly were paid, ragged, and when being far from his homes, they considered that the fight that were going to undertake was other people's causes.
The suffocating heat of January made the march more laborious. The long column of men was confused in the plain like an interminable way of ants. To the dusk of the 7 of January, the soldiers encamped in the proximity of the Slug of Arequito.


THE FACTS OF THE REVOLT
A part of the Army commanded by Bustos, encamped to about 800 meters of the rest of the troops.
At night, the Cuerpo de Dragones arrested its commander. Equal attitude took the Infantry regiments Nº 2, the Battalion Nº10 and one part of the Swarm of Húsares. The orders of the arrest had been issued by Bustos and Heredia. The incited to rebellion troops separated of the rest and encamped to certain distance.
To the dawn, they were faced two factions of he himself Army. The loyal ones to De la Cruz, from backs to the Carcarañá River, added 1400 men. It faces, the insurrectionists to the control of Bustos, were 1500 soldiers.
Both blocks spent all the morning negotiating not to face in a battle. The insurrectionists released to the prisoners and in exchange De la Cruz he decided to give to them to half of the police station elements and carts, but at noon the loyal ones started up disobeying the agreed thing. Before this, 500 men to horse to the control of Heredia, started off from the incited to rebellion sector to demand to Fernandez De la Cruz who made delivery of the decided thing.
Two leguas (10 kilometers) before Desmochados, Heredia reached to the Army. Then, the vanguard of the loyal ones had been attacked by the gauchos of Lopez, reason why Fernandez De la Cruz was itself forced to accept the order of Heredia and ordered the countermarch. At dusk, both Armies returned to be faced. That night, several battalions of De la Cruz deserted and they were united to the insurrectionists.
To the dawn of day 9, 400 santafesinos montoneros returned to harass the loyal Army. It divided the incited to rebellion cavalry for the warlike field to stop the offensives of the montonera. The incited to rebellion officials informed to the gauchos into Estanislao Lopez the rupture that had taken place in the Army and its reasons, before which the santafesinos retired and finally, Fernandez De la Cruz gave to Bustos all the force and properties of their Army.
The Revolt of Arequito was completed thus, returning the soldiers to the Cantón Del Pilar, in the province of Córdoba.


CONSEQUENCES OF THE AREQUITO REVOLT
1º of February of 1820, the federal forces of Ramirez and the Lopez defeated the weak troops of the Supreme Director, culminating the 28 of the same month with the signing of the Tratado del Pilar, that ended the conflict of the provinces and began to lay the the foundations of a national organization on federal molds of government.


Urban evolution of the Town
7 of November of 1887

“As much the Arequito station, as denominated the Palacios (located in the fields of D. Domingo Leguizamón) must be begun to construct in the present week, because is already ready part of the material that in them has to be used...” the Municipality narrated the reporter of the Newspaper, of the city of Rosary, in its note of journalistic cover of the recognition trip that the Ferrocarril Oeste Santafecino carried out the 4 of September of 1887, after the conclusion of the work of extención of the railway branch from Villa Casilda to San Jose de la Esquina. The note also described the desert characteristic of the landscape: “… In section of the branch that happens through Arequito, of 53 kilometers in length, were constructed in 7 months. It was inaugurated the 4 of November of 1887, with a celebration offered in San Jose de la Esquina, but one qualified three days commercially later.
The Ferrocarril Oeste Santafecino was a work driven by Don Carlos Casado del Alisal, with the intention to colonize the region, it increases the farming production, and to transport the harvests towards the port of Rosario, from where they exported Europe.


Old Station
Old Station

The poblamiento and the development of earth crossed by the routes, with the sprouting of towns around the train stations, were the progressives and waited for consequences of the company.
The effective dispositions established that each station of train had to be located in the heart of an urban layout of eight blocks by eight. Previous in addition that those planes would be qualified the day that by the corresponding station made step for the first time the train.
This way, the Arequito town was born the day that its station received to the Ferrocarril Oeste Santafecino, in 1887. The town took elnombre from the station, as it happened with most of the localities that arose with the railroad. The station adopted the denomination of the old slug located to 17 km towards the north of the place.
The town lacked foundation; original act of Arequito does not exist. Simply the passage of the train established the rating, and that landmark was determining so that the company as a married person of the Alisal, parceled out apples and began to sell lands to the families who seted out to build an urban scope around the station. Historical documents indicate that the first located property belonged to Don Lorenzo Destéfanis, in 1887.
In its book "El Ferrocarril Oeste Santafecino”, Juan Alberto Larrambebere wrote: ”...The railroad ( ) was to the service of the colonos immigrants who came to populate and to work the land. Around a fortnight of towns they were born to the flank of the routes of the Ferrocarril Oeste Santafecino. In each town Casado left, in the environs of the station, the lands in where today communal churches, schools, hospitals, seats and buildings are yerguen (municipal). Casado did not leave great appointments, simply constructed the future of the zone".